Status of Science in India

At the time when India gained independence the country was devoid of science and technology. The shattered economy gave nothing except low agricultural production, low number of medical facilities, and undeveloped infrastructure. All these issues became hurdles in the growth of the civilization in all aspects. But there was one thing that the country gained in terms and that was the love, humanity, patriotism, and brotherhood instilled within every Indian heart. With this most significant inheritance, the nation was able to defy all hurdles.

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Wine Making Tradition and Technology

Change is afoot in the wine-making industry. Traditional wine-makers in Europe are horrified by the transformation by science and technology of the ancient art of making wine. Vintners in Spain, and particularly France, have shunned the new technology, and it has been to their detriment. Some people think that the changes that have come about because of science are a bad thing because they sometimes have increased yield at the expense of quality. Other people think that these traditionalists are snobby and worried that high-quality, complex wines will become cheaper. Good or bad, change is definitely here.

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Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation: Science and Evidence

Introduction:

Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation (CES) is a non-drug treatment used primarily for anxiety, depression, and insomnia. It can be used as a single modality, or in combination with psychotropic medications, psychotherpy, biofeedback, and other therapies. It essentially consists of applying a very low current that is usually pulsed at 0.5 to 500 Hz to the temples, mastoid processes, or the earlobes. It is not clear at this time if any of the CES devices have a superior waveform however. There are a few devices on the market which the FDA allows to promote for the treatment of anxiety, depression, and insomnia. These devices have also been used “off label” for pain and addictive disorders. CES devices require a prescription in the United States and should only be used under the care of a licensed professional. Generally the devices must be used about 20 to 40 minutes per day, at least a few times per week, for about a month to really appreciate efficacy. Some individuals sense an immediate benefit however, especially when used for anxiety disorders, where the user might feel relaxed but also alert entering into an “alpha state” as demonstrated by the presence of alpha waves on an EEG. CES has been around for many years. The research I have seen concerning its efficacy is relatively good, and my clinical experience has also been good. It seems to be relatively safe, however CES may be contraindicated if you have a pacemaker, are pregnant, nursing, or have a seizure disorder. It may also cause some dizziness and nausea among other side effects but is generally well tolerated.

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